Notes on Florida’s Endangered and Threatened Plants1

4th Edition, August 2003

Nancy C. Coile2
updated by Mark A. Garland3

Commercially Exploited Plant List

1. Encyclia tampensis (Lindl.) Small

| Taylor, p. 301; DPI poster, plate #53 FL and West Indies

Correll and Correll, 363-364

Long and Lakela, 332

Luer, 196-199|

Small, 391-392{

Wunderlin, 235

Florida butterfly orchid Orchidaceae;

orchid family

epiphyte; pseudobulbs dark green, to 7 cm long; lvs 1 to 3, linear-lanceolate, to 40 cm long and 2 cm wide, keeled; flrs yellow-green, or brownish, whitish, purplish, lip usually whitish with magenta spot or stripes, numerous, lip 3-lobed, size variable; mangrove, cypress and hardwood swamps and hammocks; Levy, Lake and Flagler cos. southward; June-July, all year.
2. Epidendrum conopseum R.Br. ex Aiton

| Bell and Taylor, p. 30 NC, SC, GA, AL, MS, LA, FL, Mexico

Clewell, 185

Luer, 208-209|

Radford et al., 352-353

Small, 391, as

Wunderlin, 236

green-fly orchid Orchidaceae;

orchid family

epiphyte; stems to 30 cm; lvs w to 3, to 10 cm long and 15 mm wide; flrs yellow-green, suffused with purple, column slender; cypress and hardwood swamps, moist hammocks; Escambia to Duval, south to Manatee, Hardee, Highlands and Brevard cos.; all year.
3. Lycopodium cernuum L.

FNA uses: Palhinhaea cernua (L.) Vasc. and Franco

Lycopodiella cernua (L.) Sermoli-Pichi


tropics of both hemispheres;

New Zealand, Japan, Cape Province, Azores

Clewell, 42

FNA, 33

Lakela and Long, 19,20{

Long and Lakela, 64-65

Small: ferns, 418-421{

Wunderlin, 34

nodding club-moss

staghorn clubmoss

[probably the world's most abundant club-moss, according to FNA]



club-moss family

resembles a tiny Christmas tree; horizontal stems with spaced needle-like lvs, upright stems to 45 cm, lvs to 2.5 mm long, upcurved at tips; cones on tips of branches, nodding, to 8 mm long and 2 mm wide; wet depressions, ditches, moist areas; Escambia to Duval, south to Monroe and Broward cos.
4. Osmunda cinnamomea L.

| Bell and Taylor, p.4

N.B., Nfld, N.S., Ont., PEI, Que.; ME south to FL, west to MN, IA, MO, TX; West Indies, Mexico, Central and South America, Asia

Clewell, 44

FNA, 108

Lakela and Long, 45-46|

Small: ferns, 342-344{

Wunderlin, 38

cinnamon fern Pteridophyta--


royal fern family

Lvs erect, to 1.5 m tall; pinnately cpd, pinnae with tuft of hair at base; fertile fronds separate and with clusters of cinnamon colored sporangia; swamps and wetlands; Escambia to Duval, south to Broward and Collier cos. 
5. Osmunda regalis L.

var. spectabilis (Willd.) A. Gray

| Bell and Taylor, p. 4

N.B., Nfld, N.S., Ont., PEI, Que.; 

ME south to FL, west to MN, IA, MO, OK, TX 

(NOTE: 3 (or 4) other varieties have wider distribution.)

Clewell, 44

FNA, 109

Lakela and Long, 47,48{

Small: ferns, 340-342{

Wunderlin, 38

royal fern



king's fern

osmunde royale



royal fern family

Lvs erect, to 1.5 m tall; twice pinnately cpd, no tufts at base of pinnae, pinnae quite separate from each other; fertile pinnae occur at tips of fronds; swamps and wetlands; Escambia to Duval, south to Monroe and Dade cos. 
6. Rhapidophyllum hystrix (Pursh) Wendl.

and Drude


Clewell, 189

Godfrey, 78-80{

Small, 243{

Wunderlin, 181

needle palm


vegetable porcupine



palm family

Underground stems; lvs palmate, silvery below, petioles with long slender needles; fruits cluster amid the petioles and needles; river bluffs, ravine slopes, hammocks, bottomlands; Escambia to Volusia, south to Highlands and Manatee cos.
7. Rhododendron canescens (Michaux)


| Bell and Taylor, p. 84; Taylor, p. 227

DE, MD, south to FL, west to TX, OK, AR, TN

Clewell 351,

Godfrey 264-265{

Radford et al., 799-800

Small, 995

Wunderlin, 478

pink azalea

southern pinxterbloom

Piedmont azalea

bush honeysuckle

hoary azalea


heath family

Shrub to 5 m tall; lvs deciduous, 4-10 cm long, soft pubescent beneath; flrs appear before (or with) new leaves, fragrant, hairy, corollas 2.5-4.5 cm long, pink to whitish, 5 stamens about 3 times longer than the tubes; wet to well-drained woodlands with acidic soil; Escambia to Duval, Alachua and Marion cos.; spring.
8. all native species of Zamia

[=Zamia pumila L.]

| Bell and Taylor, p. 6 2 counties in GA, FL, West Indies

Clewell, 54

Correll and Correll, 58-60{

Godfrey, 66-68{

Long and Lakela, 108-110

Small, 1-2{

Wunderlin, 61


wild sago









cycad family

Separate and plants; stem underground; lvs evergreen, pinnately cpd, circinate in bud, leathery and stiff; cones 6-10 cm (sometimes to 20 cm) tall, scale faces 1-3 cm wide, 2 orange or red seeds per scale; well-drained sandy or loamy soils; Dade, Monroe, north to Dixie, Suwannee and St. Johns cos.

  1. Florida Department of Agriclture and Consumer Services, Bureau of Entomology, Nematology, and Plant Pathology - Botany Section, Contribution No. 38, 4th edition (digital version), 2003.
  2. Botanist Emeritus, FDACS, Division of Plant Industry.
  3. Botanist, FDACS, Division of Plant Industry, P. O. Box 147100, Gainesville, FL 32614-7100.

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